From the top of A Madanela, mountain of venerated Virgin, with leafy carballeira and famous pilgrimage, most of the region can be seen. Looking north, we will see, in a prominent place, the Sierra de A Martiñá, the roof of the region, with 1,015 m. at its summit, in the town hall of San Cristobo de Cea; the Pico da Peniza, 935 m. and Mount Formigueiros, 893 m., in the town hall of Piñor de Cea; We will also observe the top of O Uceiro, 1,003 m., in the town hall of O Irixo. By the west, the mountain range of O Testeiro, with the Alto de O Paraño, of 876 m. of altitude; in the same direction, but further south, Pena Corneira and, in the background, the Sierra de O Suido. They are the most rugged areas of the region, belonging to the municipalities of San Cristobo de Cea, Piñor de Cea, O Irixo, and Bearíz. In the northernmost part, following the course of the rivers, we will see the domains of the municipality of Boborás and the municipalities considered as riverside: Maside, Punxín and San Amaro, with heights that generally do not reach 400 m. In the transition between both zones, right in the middle, we can contemplate the lands of O Carballiño, with an altitude of 401 m. and whose maximum level is this in which we are.
The region establishes the limits of the NO border. from the province of Ourense with the provinces of Lugo and Pontevedra. It comprises a total area of 554.4 km2 and is formed by the nine municipalities already mentioned: Bearíz, Boborás, O Carballiño, Cea, O Irixo, Maside, Piñor de Cea, Punxín and San Amaro, which house a population of 32,280 inhabitants, whose head and governing center is O Carballiño.
SURFACE AND FLOOR
The municipality of O Carballiño occupies an area equivalent to one tenth of the region. In 54.4 km2 its 16 parishes are distributed, including that of the town, San Cibrán, which corresponds to the town center and absorbs most of the municipal census. The remaining 15 are: Arcos, Banga, Cabanelas, Lobás, Longoseiros (part belongs to Boborás), Madarnás, Mesego, Mudelos, Partovia, A Piteira, Sagra, Señorín, Seoane, O Varón and Veiga.
The lands of O Carballiño settle on a granitic surface, predominantly in the soils of the whole region, although in the most mountainous areas there is an abundance of slate shales. It is, therefore, an area of importance in quarry products (granite), but it is also rich in tin (cassiterite) and tungsten -Beariz, O Irixo-, and in mispiquel and gold (both partners) -Boborás, Piñor, O Irixo, O Carballiño and Maside-. The mining of these deposits, however, focuses exclusively on the extraction of slabs and perpiaño for construction, through quarries in O Testeiro and Boborás.
The land is acidic, rich in iron and aluminum, but lacking in clay, so its fertility is limited, although less the further south. The most impoverished soils correspond to mountain soils, while those of transition lands are optimal for native crops and forests. The soil of the southern valleys, the result of the erosion of the rivers, is favored by a microclimate typical of the lands of Bocarribeira, promoting the massive presence of vineyards.
There is no doubt that at this latitude the most grateful season from the climatic point of view is summer. However, with the weather data ahead, it cannot be said that the winter is excessively rigorous, although there are significant differences from the more mountainous areas to those of the riverbank. Autumn and spring usually present benevolent.
The climate, as corresponds to a place of half a mountain in the interior of Galicia, is humid, with an annual average rainfall of 1,054.5 mm, spread over 130 days, mostly in winter (38%), but also in spring (27%), in autumn (26%), and even during summer (9%). The average annual hours of sunstroke is 1,257, almost 40% of the year, which occur mostly in the summer months and to a lesser extent during the spring and autumn.
The average annual temperature is 12´40 C, January being the coldest month, with 5´70 C, and July the warmest, with 19´90 C. Frost appears for 156 days a year. It is not frequent, however, that snow, although for five days a year, on average, the most pronounced peaks of the region, especially those of A Martiñá and O Testeiro, are usually covered with a beautiful white mantle.
Evergreens predominate throughout the region, especially pine trees – Pinus Pinaster and Pinus Sylvestris – and eucalyptus, although there are areas of more noble species: carballeiras and castañares. The Municipal Park of O Carballiño is, perhaps, one of the few privileged places in terms of the diversity of tree species and flora in general. The enclosure, of 32 Ha., Is considered in this regard as one of the most outstanding parks in Galicia. The minor flora is represented by species that, like the toxo -tojo- or the xesta -retama-, proliferate in abundance.